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Adipocytes are fat cells in hypodermis which is the lowermost layer of skin. They are located in organelles named lipid droplets. These cells store extra nutrients that the organism does not use as fat.


It is the conversion process of precursor preadipocyte cells in hypodermis into lipid storing adipocytes by differentiating.


This is the secretion produced by apocrine sweat glands. Secretion in gland cell is excreted from the edge of the cell with some part of the cytoplasm. It moves from hair shaft to skin surface. It is odorless upon production. It emits a bad smell upon contact with oxygen.




Apocrine glands are present in nipples, armpits, areola, perianal area, genital area and eyelids. It is developed from epidermis. Its secretions are bases in structure and they are opened into hair follicle with a glomerular channel. They are branched alveolar glands. Their production is limited. They are stimulated by emotions and stress. These glands are managed by sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system. It is odorless upon production. It may emit a bad smell upon contact with oxygen and enzymes in air.



Antioxidants are molecules preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Free radicals are formed as a result of oxidation. These free radicals cause the initiation of a chain reaction. An intracellular chain reaction results in deformation or death of the cell. This accelerates the process we call aging. An advanced and complex antioxidant system is developed in humans for protection of cells and organ systems against reactive oxygen types and preventing oxidation reaction. This system contains various external and internal components working synergistically for inactivating free radicals. Nutrient borne antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol and tocotrienols (vitamin E), carotenoids and low-molecular weight components (glutathione and lioic acid etc.) are among these components.



The innermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of a single layer of tall, cylindrical cells arranged in a fence-like structure and containing large, oval nuclei. These include Merkel’s cells, melanocytes and keratinocytes. This layer is where the keratinocytes divide before migrating to the upper layers of the epidermis. The basal germinative layer therefore plays a key role in epidermal regeneration.



Very narrow blood vessels arranged in complex networks in all tissues. Capillaries are where gases and nutrients are exchanged and waste is eliminated.



A specific class of lipids found naturally in skin and hair. As part of the body’s “intercellular cement”, they help the skin act as a barrier and regulate skin hydration.




It is a big protein produced in dermis by fibroblasts. It looks like a triplex with triple chains of a hundred or more amino acids. It is the main component of skin and also bones and teeth. This filamentous protein with extremely elastic structure that fills the spaces between tissue cells begins to lose its elasticity with age.



Biologically dead cells with no nucleus; corneocytes are keratinocytes in their last stage of differentiation.



Dermal papillae are protrusions in dermo-epidermal junction. It is present in the bottom of each hair follicle at growth phase. In normal hair follicles dermal papilla is in the shape of a healthy ‘’pear’’ and it contains an extremely active cell. These cells are from mesenchymal origin, and they have the ability to induce follicle development from epidermis and produce hair shaft or hair fibrils.



The dermis, a connective tissue located between the epidermis and the hypodermis, consists of a gel that surrounds fibroblasts, collagen fibres, elastin fibres and other structural molecules. The thickness of the dermis increases during childhood and adolescence, reaches a plateau, and decreases after the age of 50. The dermis has two layers: the superficial or papillary dermis, and the deep or reticular dermis. It is highly vascularised and in addition to providing support (through its collagen and elastin fibres) it plays an important nutritive role. The dermis also contributes to thermoregulation, the wound healing process and the elimination of bodily waste (in the form of sweat, which contains urea).


Separates the dermis from the epidermis. Its sinewy structure flattens out with age. It consists of various components, primarily what is known as the basement membrane. The dermo-epidermal junction serves three main purposes: it provides mechanical support for the epidermis, maintains contact between the dermis and the epidermis and acts as a barrier and selective filter.



The eccrine gland is the main sweat gland, producing sweat that is 90% water. This sweat is odourless and colourless because it contains little organic material that can be broken down by bacteria. The eccrine gland deposits sweat directly on the skin’s surface.



A protein produced by fibroblasts that is able to create a network of elastic fibres five times stretchier than a rubber band with the same diameter. Elastin fibres give skin its stretchability and elasticity. They comprise just 5 to 10% of all the body’s dermal fibres but are essential in giving the skin its elastic properties.


Epidermal lipids are structures that prevent the evaporation of water from skin and that ensures holding the water in the skin. It forms 10-14 of the dry weight of living and dead epidermis. Settlement of epidermal lipids among cells causes double layer formation with liquid crystal characteristics. Approximately 50% of this structure is comprised of ceramides, 25% of cholesterol and 25% fatty acids.


Folds in the dermo-epidermal junction (resembling fingers) that interlock with the dermal papillae.




The skin’s most superficial layer, which covers the dermis. It is typically as thick as a sheet of paper, but may be thicker. Alternating epidermal ridges and dermal papillae give it an undulating appearance. It consists of four superimposed cell layers that lie on top of the dermo-epidermal junction: the basal layer, Malpighian layer, granular layer and stratum corneum, the latter coated with hydrolipidic film. While skin is made up of 90% keratinocytes, it also contains melanocytes (cells that determine the colour of the skin) and Langerhans cells. The epidermis is devoid of blood vessels; instead, its cells are nourished by diffusion from the dermis.


The extracellular matrix secreted by fibroblasts consists of collagen and elastin fibres and structural glycoproteins.



Fibroblasts are cells in the dermis responsible for secreting elastin and collagen fibres as well as glycosaminoglycans, which form the supportive framework for the skin. They are located within the fibrous matrix and remain connected to the network of fibres they produce. The number of fibroblasts diminishes with age. They also become less productive, resulting in fewer macromolecules in the intercellular matrix. The supportive tissue thus becomes less dense and has a tendency to sag.


Flavonoids are strong antioxidants preventing the oxidizing (aging) damage of free radicals that are produced in the body or that are external.


These are instable molecular particles formed in skin tissue by internal and externals factors. Free radicals attack cells and deteriorate their structure.



Glycoproteins (GP) affect migration, adhesion and orientation of cells. GPs found most commonly in dermis are fibronectin and tenascin. Fibronectin is a GP with filament structure and it plays a role in the binding of platelets to collagen and development of granulation structure. Tenascin is found commonly in developing skin and only in papillary dermis in adult skin. These matrix proteins play a significant role in tissue structuring after cosmetic applications.


Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are formed from polysaccharide chains composed of repeating disaccharide units bound to a protein nucleus. GAGs are important molecules due to their ability of binding water more than 1000 times of their volume. GAG family possesses many members such as hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate. Deterioration of the relationship between collagen and elastin and decreasing of water binding capacity are observed as a result of the decreasing HA amount due to age. This state results in wrinkles and loss of elasticity.

Granuler LayersGRANULAR LAYER:

The granular layer is found beneath the stratum corneum. It consists of 3 to 5 layers of cells that have already flattened considerably, whose nuclei are in the process of degenerating. Its granular appearance is due to the presence of keratohyalin granules and keratinosomes. The latter help form the body’s “intercellular cement” by spreading their lamellae into the spaces between cells. Keratohyalin helps make keratin more resistant and decomposes into a mixture of amino acids that create the natural moisturising factor (NMF).



A fibre composed of keratin, produced by hair follicles.



A cavity in the epidermis containing a hair. It penetrates the epidermis at an angle until it reaches the skin’s deeper layers.


The aqueous and lipid compounds that are always naturally present on the skin’s surface.





It is a sugar molecule present in the natural structure of skin. It increases the water ratio in skin and prevents water loss. It has the ability to hold up water as much as 1000 times its weight. As our skin ages, hyaluronic acid production decreases. Molecular weight of dermal hyaluronic acid is 2 - 10 KDalton and it is a hyaluronic acid molecule with the smallest structure, it can lower up to dermis layer. Molecular weight of epidermal hyaluronic acid is 500 KDalton and it can lower up to epidermis layer. Hyaluronic acid with the highest molecular weight is 1500-2000 KDalton and it only stays on the uppermost layer of the skin as humectant.


The skin’s innermost layer, made up of adipose tissue (consisting of adipocytes, or fat cells) and connective tissue. The thickness of the hypodermis varies depending on where on the body it is located (it is thin on the forehead and thick on the buttocks). It represents 15 to 30% of body weight (approximately 8 to 20kg).
The primary role of the hypodermis is to store energy reserves for the body. It acts as an interface between the dermis and the moving structures located beneath it (muscles, tendons, etc.). It also protects the organism from shock and acts like a “thermal overcoat”. The connectors between adipocyte lobules disappear with age, causing tissues to sag, which leads to a loss in skin density.



It literally means “in glass”. It indicates that a biochemical process has taken place in a tube or similar place and not in a living organism.


It literally means “in glass”. It indicates that a biological or chemical process or reaction has taken place in a cell, organism, animal or human.



A fibrous, sulphur-rich and water-insoluble protein that is extremely resistant. Within the epidermis, keratin takes the form of bundles of fibres arranged parallel to the skin’s surface.


These cells, which make up the largest group in the epidermis and the hair follicle, are responsible for the synthesis of keratin that takes place in either the stratum corneum or the hair shaft.Keratinocytes originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, where they multiply by dividing. As they migrate outward towards the skin’s surface they produce lipids, NMF and keratin. During this process, keratinocytes become progressively flatter, lose their nuclei and die. They are then referred to as corneocytes.


A substance contained in keratohyalin granules (found within the keratinocytes in the Malpighian layer) which is the basis of keratin.


Krause's End BulbKRAUSE’S END BULB:

Corpuscle belonging to the cold-sensitive group of sensory receptors (thermoreceptors). It is the smallest sensory receptor.



A star-shaped skin cell responsible for immune defence, located in the epidermis. It is capable of migrating and can alert other immune cells if invading molecules or foreign bodies are detected, making it a sort of “sentry” for the immune system. Langerhans cells are able to “phagocytise” – or engulf and destroy – foreign particles such as viruses. They can also stimulate the production of some lymphocytes. But intense, repeated exposure to UV rays can impair their cutaneous immune function.


Lipid is a diverse material found in both plants and skin and contains fat, fatty acids and sebum. They are used as softening and thickening agents in skin care products. In terms of amount of lipids in the surface of skin, the highest amount belongs to triglycerides, then fatty acids, cholesterol esters and cholesterol respectively. These lipids are an important part of epidermis, and they help prevent the penetration of harmful bacteria. Lipids help maintaining NMF (Natural Moisturizing Factor) in the cell, where it is needed in order to keep cells moist and enzymes working.


Fat injection (lipofilling) is a rejuvenation method used for filling the bottom of wrinkles, and correction of soft tissue deformities formed as a result of replacements due to troughs, ablation or aging. Far injection can be applied to the area around the eyes, on top of cheek bones, on the cheeks, around the mouth, chin, lips and forehead, and slumps in the body that are congenital or lately formed.



The skin layer located just beneath the granular layer of the epidermis, made up of keratinocytes that are starting to flatten out, melanocytes and nerve endings.


Meissner's CorpuscleMEISSNER’S CORPUSCLE:

This corpuscle is a “fast-adapting mechanoreceptor” that helps us to perceive light, superficial vibratory sensations. It is involved in the sense of touch, particularly when the skin is touched lightly or comes into contact with moving objects.



A natural pigment produced by melanocytes, responsible for the colour of our skin, hair, body hair and eyes.




These cells produce pigments known as melanins – which give the skin, hair and eyes their natural colouration – and transmit them to the keratinocytes. Melanocytes are found in the epidermis, the hair follicles and the eyes.



Can perceive vibratory sensations, allowing us to detect and pinpoint objects that come into contact with the skin and to discern their shapes and textures.



A tissue layer covering the inside of some internal organs and producing secretions is called mucosa. One of the best examples for mucosa is oral mucosa. Oral mucosa consists of epidermis and lamina propria.



These serve as both thermoreceptors, sensitive to cold and heat, and nociceptors (pain receptors) that react to painful stimuli. They assume the role of a “sentry”: should an aggressor or outside stimulus that is likely to damage the skin’s integrity appear, these receptors release neurotransmitters that warn the organism of danger.

NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor)N.M.F (NATURAL MOISTURISING FACTOR):

Found in the cells of the stratum corneum, this complex has significant water-retention capabilities and therefore plays an important role in keeping skin hydrated.



The superficial part of the dermis found between the various epidermal ridges formed by the undulations at the dermo-epidermal junction. It consists of loose connective tissue with a great number of elastic and reticulin fibres. It is also rich in small blood vessels (capillaries) and nerve endings.




Phospholipids are the one of the main components of cell membranes. Phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin perform a significant amount of exchange between plasma and erythrocytes. These phoshpholipid that are in the structure of lipoproteins maintain non-polar lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol in soluble state in the plasma due to their amphipathic features. Phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters are in free form in the body and by this way they bring elasticity to cell membrane.


Physiological pH value of skin is approximately 5.5. Buffering agents in skin help maintaining cutaneous pH value stable. When small amounts of acidic and alkaline agents are administered topically, they ensure neutralization and reduce irritant effects. Buffering capacity of skin is generally formed with lactic acid/lactate system.


A pilosebaceous follicle is a unit consisting of a hair follicle and a sebum-producing sebaceous gland. The sebaceous gland is connected to a hair that is more or less depleted depending on the part of the body where it is located. There are various types of hair. On the head, hair follicles extend 4mm below scalp level and the sebaceous glands are small. Facial hair on the cheeks is fine, with follicles extending 2mm beneath the skin’s surface and larger sebaceous glands. Nose hair and that found on the chin and cheekbones is even finer – barely visible – but the related sebaceous glands are extremely large.


Proteins are the primary materials of cells which is the smallest building blocks of the body. They are polymers consisting of one or more polypeptide chains. They play roles in all of the biological activities of cells. As building stones of cells, proteins are formed from gathering of amino acids. Proteins are present in all tissues from bones to hairs, blood to brain and they are used in rejuvenating and repairing of tissues. Various enzymes, hormones and secretions have protein structure. Joining into the structure of enzymes and supporting destruction and production, producing antibodies that protect the body against foreign matters and microbes, etc., are present among its duties.



Made up of dense connective tissue. Fibres of collagen and elastin criss-cross one another parallel to the skin’s surface. This is where we find the sebaceous glands, eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and hair follicles. This highly vascularised layer also contains many nerves.


One of the group of heat-sensitive sensory receptors (thermoreceptors). Because it is also sensitive to pressure and pain, it can equally be classified as a mechanoreceptor.



Skin is an organ covering whole body and protecting it from the outer world. Its thickness differs from 0.5 mm (eyelids) to 5 mm (under feet). As a result of examining cross section of skin under microscope, 3 layers are found: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Skin ensures that body performs necessary functions for our survival. (protecting body temperature, sensations, providing immunity and synthesis of vitamin D)


A follicular depression on the skin’s surface that serves as an outlet for hair or body hair, sebum, apocrine sweat and peeling skin cells.



Sebum is a complex blend of lipids produced and secreted by the sebaceous glands in the dermis. It reaches the skin’s surface through the pores of the pilosebaceous follicles. Sebum combines with sweat on the skin’s surface to produce the hydrolipidic film that normally covers the epidermis to help protect against dehydration. Sebum thus provides natural lubrication for hair and body hair and actively contributes to the skin’s role as a barrier.



Skin has various tasks as a main organ covering the body and protecting it against external factors. Originating from ectoderm and mesoderm in embryonic life; skin is comprised of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis layers. Thickness of these layers of skin shows differences from region to region. Epidermis is thickest in palms and soles of feet and it is approximately 1.5 mm. It is thinnest in eyelids and it is approximately 0.05 mm thick. The thickness of dermis is approximately 1-3 mm. Dermis is thickest in the back (dorsal area) and its thickness is 30-40 times of the epidermis that is on top of dermis. Subcutaneous fat layers are most common in abdomen and hips. Tasks of skin: vital functions such as protection (against internal and external factors), absorption, storage, sensation, Vitamin D synthesis and discharge of static electric etc.


There are two main processes in skin aging that are intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external). Internal process is the indicator of the genetic infrastructure of the person, and it develops depending on chronological age, it is inevitable and it cannot be prevented. External aging is developed depending on factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, malnutrition, solar rays and negative environmental factors, it can be prevented or slowed down with personal measures. Definition of ‘premature aging’ represents external aging, and it has been reported that 80% of it is due to ultraviolet (UV) light.



A skin appendage connected to a hair (together they form a pilosebaceous follicle). Responsible for producing sebum. The size of the sebaceous gland is inversely proportional to the size of the connected hair. Sebaceous glands can be grouped into three categories, depending on the hair to which they are attached: Small sebaceous glands, Large sebaceous glands, Extremely large sebaceous glands


It is a complex mixture of lipids produced and secreted by fat glands in dermis. It reaches to the surface of skin through the pores of pilosebaceous follicles. Sebum generally integrates with sweat for producing a hydrophillic film generally covering epidermis in order to help protection from dehydration (water loss). Sebum therefore ensures a natural lipoidosis in scalp and body hair and supports skin in its task as an active inhibiter.



One of the 4 layers of epidermis, spinous layer consists of suprabasal keratinocytes. Cell structure ensures a firmer and stronger mechanical resistance due to keratin granules. The fact that suprabasal keratinocytes are in advanced differentiation phase makes staining possible for products not present in basal cells (e.g. sugar complexes and blood group antigens). Cytoplasm contains proteins not present in lower layers such as involucrin, keratolin and loricrin. These proteins are crosslinked among themselves in stratum corneum and thus make this layer firmer.


It is the innermost layer of epidermis. It consists of prismatic epithelium cells aligned vertically. It is the layer ensuring the rejuvenation of epidermis. Stratum Basalae cells are continuously divided. Divided cells stay on Stratum Corneum in 3-4 weeks and discarded from the body.


The stratum corneum can be thought of as the “skin’s skin” since it is the outermost layer of the epidermis. It consists of dead, completely flattened, non-nucleated cells that form lamellae, or small strips. It represents the body’s ultimate barrier against the outside environment, ensuring protection from external aggression. The stratum corneum has a twofold role in keeping skin hydrated: – where the outer world is concerned, the keratinised cells of the stratum corneum form a hydrophobic barrier that prevents us from swelling up with water when we take a shower, for example; – internally, it maintains hydration thanks to its natural moisturising factor, which stops water in the skin from evaporating.


It is a layer standing out with its similarity to lower living cells more than upper layers. Cells forming Stratum Granulosum layer are granular and polygonal and their nuclei are crumpled. They play an important part in keratinization. Keratohyalin granules are observed in this layer. These granules contain a metallic substance estimated to be copper or calcium. Copper is known to be a catalytic element for keratosis.


It is the layer right below Stratum Corneum. Cell alignment in this layer is generally orderly and smooth. This layer has the appearance of a thin membrane. While whole characteristics of Stratum Lucidum are not known, they are thought to contain aminoacids with a large amount of sulphur content and used in keratin synthesis.


These are cells of epidermis elongated in the shape of column, cube and spindle. Cells are polyhedral in lower parts, as they go upper they become more squamous. These are also called mosaic cells. Their size and thickness differ according to their areas. Numerous fibrils are present in the protein structure of each cell.



This corpuscle is a “slow-adapting mechanoreceptor” that helps us to perceive intense or deep vibratory sensations. It detects when the skin is stretched, distended or subjected to strong pressure.



A crease or fold in the skin that results from ageing, weight loss, UV exposure, etc.

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